2019 China Import Development Report (Export to China)

The “2019 China Import Development Report” ( Export to China ) uses a large amount of data to conduct a basic, systematic and comprehensive statistical analysis of products from different exhibition areas of the Expo, key imported products, key importing countries and new trade formats. This report mainly includes four parts: general report, theory chapter, special article and policy chapter. The theoretical chapter includes two parts: China’s active expansion of imports to promote high-quality domestic economic development and China’s active expansion of imports to promote the development of global free trade. The feature article includes nine topics, namely the 70-year history of China’s import development in New China, China’s auto product imports, China’s high-end equipment products imports, China’s technology and life products imports, China’s high-tech products imports, China’s quality consumer goods imports, China’s agricultural products import China ’s imports from the United States and China ’s imports from the European Union.

1. The 70-year history of China’s import development in New China

During the period from 1950 to 1978, at the beginning of the founding of New China, the domestic economy was in vain. The Western capitalist countries adopted a hostile and blockade policy against New China. China’s import trade was very limited. In 1950, China’s total imports were only $ 583 million. After the founding of New China, the Chinese government actively carried out foreign exchanges and trade exchanges, and vigorously expanded economic and trade activities with the vast number of Asian and African countries. With the active efforts of the new Chinese government, by 1978, China ’s total imports exceeded 10 billion US dollars 10.893 billion US dollars, 18.68 times that of 1950. With the growth of China’s total imports, the proportion of China’s total imports in the world’s total imports and rankings have not been significantly improved, but there has been a slight decline.

In 1950, China’s total imports accounted for 0.91% of the world’s total imports, ranking 27th in the world; before the reform and opening up in 1978, China’s import share fell to 0.82%, and the import ranking fell to 29th. In 1978, the total imports of the three developed countries of the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom accounted for 13.70%, 8.96%, and 5.58% of the world ’s total imports, respectively, about 17 times, 11 times, and 7 times the current level of China; Japan and Russia and other neighboring Asian countries have reached 5.88% and 3.72% of imports, far higher than China’s 0.82%; in addition, China is even less than Latin American developing countries Brazil (1.11%) and Venezuela (0.86%). Commodities such as steel, grain, crude oil, logs, cotton, natural rubber, and pulp have always been China’s core import commodities during this period.

During the period 1979-2018, China’s import scale increased significantly, gradually becoming one of the world’s largest import trading countries. In 1979, China’s total imports accounted for less than 1% of the world’s total imports, and China’s import share ranked only 24th in the world. The leap-forward growth of China’s import trade began after China’s accession to the WTO. After the reform and opening up to the period before China’s accession to the WTO, China’s total imports have increased, but the growth rate is relatively small. By 2001, China’s total imports were only 243.553 billion US dollars, about 15 times the 1979.

From 1979 to 2001, China’s import trade showed a steady growth. However, since 2002, China’s total imports have begun to show an exponential growth trend, during this period China’s import trade began to grow by leaps and bounds. Since 2013, China ’s imports have remained roughly at 10% of world imports. Although it is not as good as the US (about 13%), it is much higher than other countries in the same period. In 2018, China’s total imports were approximately 9 times that of 2001, 136 times that of 1979, and 3663 times that of 1950.

Ranked among the top 20 importing countries in the world in 1983, and among the top 10 importing countries in the world in 1999, rapidly rising from the sixth place in 2002 to the third place in 2003, China became the third in the world after the United States and Germany The big importer is also the largest importer of developing countries. In 2009, China’s imports surpassed Germany, making it the world’s second-largest importer after the United States for the first time, and for many years afterwards, China was firmly established as the world’s second-largest importer.

The distribution of China’s import source countries gradually changed from focusing on developed countries to expanding into developing countries. From the perspective of import share, in 1979, about 70% of China’s imports came from the top ten developed countries, compared with less than 10% of China’s imports from the top ten developing countries. However, by 2018, China’s share of imports from the top ten developed countries fell from 69.72% in 1979 to 30.1%; at the same time, China’s share of imports from the top ten developing countries increased from 9.26% in 1979 to 28.13% .

The number of Chinese import sources continues to increase, covering almost all countries in the world. In 1979, China’s import trading partners mainly involved 42 countries and regions in the world. About half of China’s imports came from the top three import source countries, namely Japan, the United States and Germany. As the pace of reform and opening up has accelerated, the scope of China’s import sources has continued to expand. By 2018, China’s import sources have covered more than 230 countries and regions around the world. At the same time, China’s share of imports from South Korea, Japan, and the United States, the three major source countries, fell to 29.8%.

The distribution of China’s import trade subjects has undergone a fundamental transformation. In 1981, the import proportion of China’s state-owned enterprises, foreign-funded enterprises and other enterprises was 99.19%, 0.46% and 0.35% respectively. The distribution of China’s import trade subjects was extremely uneven. State-owned enterprises almost monopolized China’s import trade. By 2018, the distribution of China’s import trade entities has undergone a fundamental change. Foreign-funded enterprises have become the largest importer, with imports accounting for 43.72%; private companies and other types of enterprises account for 30.63% of imports, while state-owned enterprises The proportion of imports is the lowest, about 25.65%.

2. China’s automobile product import development

From 2001 to 2017, the import scale of China’s automotive products (including complete vehicles and parts) generally showed a rapid growth. In 2001, the import scale of China’s automobile products was US $ 4.21 billion, which increased to US $ 75.53 billion in 2017. In 2017, it was about 18 times the import scale in 2001, with an average annual growth rate of 18.51%. Among them, the growth rate of imported automobile products from the G7 Group was relatively fast, increasing from US $ 2.95 billion in 2001 to US $ 61.77 billion in 2017, an increase of nearly 20 times. The ratio of China ’s imports of automobile products from G7 countries to China ’s total imports of automobile products increased from 70.1% in 2001 to 81.9% in 2017.

Judging from the internal structure of the G7 Group, in 2001, China mainly imported automobile products from Japan and Germany. The import scale accounted for 31.8% and 25% of China’s total imports of automobile products, respectively. China’s share of imported automobile products from the United States only accounted for 5.7% . In 2017, China mainly imported automobile products from Germany, Japan, and the United States, and the import scale accounted for 31.2%, 18.6%, and 18.5% of China’s total automobile product imports, respectively. It can be seen that China’s share of auto products imported from the United States is increasing significantly.

Judging from the ratio of China’s imports of automotive products from G7 Group to the total exports of G7 Group’s automotive products, 2017 also saw a substantial increase from 2001, with the ratio increasing from 0.8% to 8.6%, indicating that G7 Group’s export of automotive products to the Chinese market The degree of dependence is constantly increasing.

During 2017-2018, China’s imports of BMW, Porsche and Audi from Germany increased significantly, while the other two brands imported from Germany, Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen, declined slightly; the overall import volume of Japanese brand cars increased, and Lexus’ growth rate Greater than the decline of Toyota; the decline of Lincoln in the United States in 2018 was obvious, with a year-on-year decline of more than 30%.

3. Import development of China’s high-end equipment products

Judging from the import scale of high-end equipment products, the import scale of China’s high-end equipment products has generally shown an upward trend over the years. Under the caliber of including integrated circuits, the import scale of China’s high-end equipment products increased from US $ 155.59 billion in 2007 to US $ 325.187 billion in 2017, which was 2.10 times that of 2007; under the caliber of not including integrated circuits, China’s high-end equipment The import scale increased from 8.242 billion US dollars in 2001 to 44.508 billion US dollars in 2017, which is 5.4 times that of 2001.

Judging from the structure of China’s import source of high-end equipment products, the United States has always been the largest source of imports of high-end equipment products in China. Between 30% -40%. Secondly, France, Germany and Japan are the second echelon of Chinese high-end equipment products imports. In 2017, the three together accounted for 43.31% of China’s total imports of high-end equipment products; Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Brazil belong to the third echelon of Chinese high-end equipment imports. In 2017, these regions accounted for 9.67% of China’s total imports of high-end equipment products.

From the perspective of the regional structure of China’s imports of high-end equipment products, in 2018, the top five regions with the largest imports of high-end equipment products in China were Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangdong, Beijing, and Jiangsu, with imports of 15.9 billion USD, USD 7.8 billion, USD 6.6 billion, USD 4.1 billion, and USD 3.8 billion. Its share of China ’s high-end equipment imports is 31.52%, 15.39%, 13.06%, 8.16%, and 7.60%, respectively. These five regions accounted for 75.71% of China’s total imports of high-end equipment products, showing greater regional concentration characteristics.

4. China’s import and development of science and technology life products

From the perspective of total imports, China’s total imports of science, technology and life products increased from US $ 4.15 billion in 2001 to US $ 27.8 billion in 2017, which was about 6.7 times that of 2001. Judging from the status of the import of technological life products in China’s total imports, China’s import share of technological life products is less than 2%, which is always low. Judging from China’s position in the world’s total imports of science and technology life products, China’s total imports of science and technology life products accounted for about 7.6% in 2017.

From the sources of the growth of China’s total imports of science and technology life products, science and technology life products include two types of consumer electronics products and life electrical products. China’s science and technology life products import growth is mainly driven by the growth of consumer electronics products, not life electrical products. From 2001 to 2017, China’s consumer electronics imports grew rapidly, from US $ 3.7 billion in 2001 to US $ 25.54 billion in 2017. About 90% of China’s total imports of science, technology and life products are consumer electronics.

In 2001, the top ten importing countries of China’s scientific and technological life products were all developed countries. China’s imports of scientific and technological life products from the United States accounted for 24.6%, and China’s imports of technological life products from Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom accounted for about 10% . By 2017, seven developing countries represented by Vietnam, South Korea, and Thailand were among the top ten import source countries of China’s consumer goods in science and technology. Among them, China’s imports of science and technology products from Vietnam accounted for 36.6%. South Korea and Japan imported 17.1% and 12.6% of science and technology products respectively.

From 2001 to 2017, the proportion of China’s imports of scientific and technological life products from G7 Group decreased from 65.3% to 17.4%, a decrease of approximately 48 percentage points. By 2017, the source countries of China’s imports of science and technology life products are mainly concentrated in middle-income countries, developing countries and countries along the “Belt and Road”. Among them, the “Belt and Road” countries accounted for 50.7% of China’s total imports of science and technology life products.

5. China’s import and development of high-tech products

Since 2001, the scale of China’s imports of high-tech products has shown a rapid growth. The overall import scale of China’s high-tech products increased from US $ 73.6 billion in 2001 to US $ 621.9 billion in 2017, an increase of 7.5 times, with an average annual growth rate of 13.38%.

Judging from the share of China’s high-tech product imports in China’s total imports, from 2001 to 2017, China’s high-tech manufacturing industry’s import share basically remained at 28.20% -38.57%. Among them, in 2006, China’s high-tech product imports accounted for the highest share of China’s total imports, at 38.57%, and in 2017, China’s high-tech product imports accounted for 33.73% of China’s total imports.

Judging from the share of China’s high-tech product imports in the world’s high-tech product imports, from 2001 to 2017, the share of China’s high-tech product imports in the world’s high-tech product imports has shown a substantial upward trend. In 2001, China’s imports of high-tech products accounted for only 5% of the world’s total imports of high-tech products. By 2017, China’s imports of high-tech products accounted for 16.15% of the world’s imports of high-tech products.

From the perspective of the end use of high-tech imported products, from 2001 to 2017, China ’s imports of high-tech products have been dominated by intermediate goods and capital goods. The import of technical consumer goods accounts for less than 5% of the import of high-tech products. Specifically, from 2001 to 2017, China’s import volume of high-tech consumer goods increased from 1.6 billion U.S. dollars to 26.6 billion U.S. dollars, with an average annual growth rate of 17.98%, but its share of China’s high-tech product imports remained at only about 5% ; The import scale of China’s high-tech intermediate products has increased from US $ 46.4 billion to US $ 421.6 billion, with an average annual growth rate of 13.86%, and its share of China’s imports of high-tech products is as high as about 65%; To USD 173.4 billion, the average annual growth rate is 11.88%, and it accounts for about 30% of China’s imports of high-tech products.

From the perspective of the source structure of China’s high-tech product imports, Taiwan and South Korea are the main sources of high-tech product imports in China. During the period 2001-2017, the scale of China ’s imports of high-tech products from Taiwan was greatly increased. The import scale ranked from the fourth largest source of imports of high-tech products in China in 2001 to the largest import source by 2017 The import scale in 2017 was 20.22 times that of 2001, with an average annual growth rate of 19.35%. At the same time, the scale of China ’s imports of high-tech products from South Korea has also increased significantly. During 2001-2017, South Korea ’s fifth largest source of high-tech products imports from China rose to the second largest The scale increased from US $ 5.5 billion to US $ 80.5 billion, 18.72 times that of 2001, with an average annual growth rate of 17.10%; the share of high-tech product imports from China ’s high-tech product imports increased from 7.84% to 17.65%, accounting for China ’s total import ‘S share increased from 2.14% to 5.23%. Developed countries headed by the United States and Japan, due to the long-term export control of high-tech products in China, China’s imports of high-tech products from the United States and Japan from 2001 to 2017 have a relatively low growth rate, accounting for China’s high-tech product import share And the share of China’s total imports showed a clear downward trend.

In terms of specific industries, in 2017, the largest category of high-tech product imports in China was the electronics and communications equipment manufacturing industry, with a total import of US $ 393.2 billion, accounting for 63.23% of China’s total imports of high-tech products, accounting for China’s total import The import scale is 21.32%, which is 10.32 times that of 2001. During the period 2001-2017, the average annual growth rate is 14.72%; the second largest high-tech industry in imports is the medical equipment and instrument manufacturing industry, with a total import of 1155 US $ 100 million, accounting for 18.57% of China ’s total imports of high-tech products and 6.27% of China ’s total imports. The scale of imports was 9.96 times that of 2001. During the period 2001-2017, the average annual growth rate was 14.48%.

6. China’s import development of quality consumer goods

From the perspective of total imports, China’s total imports of quality consumer goods increased from US $ 26.5 in 2001 to US $ 30.08 billion in 2017, which was approximately 11.35 times that of 2001. From the perspective of change trends, China’s total imports of quality consumer goods have shown a steadily rising trend, especially after China’s accession to the WTO, China’s total imports of quality consumer goods continued to grow rapidly. Although affected by the financial crisis, China’s total imports of high-quality consumer goods declined slightly in 2009, but after 2009 it has continued to grow steadily.

Compared with the international market, China’s imports of quality consumer goods are at a relatively low level. Although China’s total imports of quality consumer goods have increased, the position of quality consumer goods in China’s import trade and China’s position in the world’s import of quality consumer goods are at a relatively low level. Specifically, from the perspective of the position of quality consumer goods in China’s import trade, the proportion of China’s quality consumer goods in China’s total imports has remained unchanged, and has remained at a relatively low level of less than 2% from 2001 to 2017. Compared with the world’s overall level (more than 6%), there is a big gap. Judging from China’s position in the world’s imports of quality consumer goods, China’s share of total world quality consumer goods imports increased from 0.5% in 2001 to 2.4% in 2017. From an international comparison point of view, China’s imports of quality consumer goods are significantly lower than those of G7 Group; compared with BRICS countries, although China’s imports of quality consumer goods are slightly higher than that of India, there are still gap.

China’s imports of quality consumer goods mainly come from developed countries. During the period from 2001 to 2017, the proportion of China’s high-quality consumer goods imported from developed countries increased from 50.4% to 68.3%, an increase of nearly 18 percentage points. In 2017, China’s sources of quality consumer goods imports were mainly concentrated in developed countries, high-income countries, and OECD countries. Among them, China imported 36.1% of quality consumer goods from G7 Group. In addition, China’s import of quality consumer goods from the “Belt and Road” countries has increased significantly, from 10.8% in 2001 to 25.8% in 2017, an increase of 15 percentage points.

The main imported commodities of quality consumer goods in China are clothing, accessories and cosmetics. In 2017, the total imports of apparel, apparel and accessories consumer goods accounted for 20.8% of China’s total quality consumer goods imports, which was the largest import of quality consumer goods; cosmetics and cosmetics products followed, with imports accounting for 20.1% . Judging from the changing trend, the proportion of China’s imports of apparel and accessories has declined, from 41.8% in 2001 to 20.8% in 2017, while the proportion of cosmetics and cosmetics imports has shown an upward trend. In addition, in 2017, China’s imports of mother and baby products, furniture and household items accounted for more than 10%.

China’s various types of high-quality consumer goods have become increasingly important in world import trade. From 2001 to 2017, in addition to toys, China’s total imports of all kinds of quality consumer goods accounted for the proportion of the world’s total imports of such goods. Among them, the proportion of China’s total imports of maternal and infant products and cosmetics and daily necessities accounted for the world’s total imports of such goods increased from 0.7% and 0.6% in 2001 to 17.5% and 5.4% in 2017. Generally speaking, China’s imports of quality consumer goods are becoming increasingly important in world import trade.

The status of the “Belt and Road” countries in China’s import of high-quality consumer goods is increasing. In addition to cosmetics and pet food, the “Belt and Road” countries have increased their share of the total imports of various quality consumer goods in China. Among them, the proportion of imports of shoes, accessories, apparel and accessories has grown rapidly, increasing from 26.6%, 8.7%, and 5.6% in 2001 to 75.5%, 62.6%, and 51.0% in 2017, respectively.

Vietnam has risen to become the largest source of imports of Chinese apparel and accessories consumer goods. China’s major source countries for cosmetics and cosmetics imports are South Korea, Japan and France. From the perspective of total imports, South Korea, Japan and France were the main sources of imports of cosmetics and cosmetics products in China in 2017. 28.1%, 19.9% ​​and 15.3%.

7. China’s agricultural product import development

China’s total imports and imports of agricultural products have shown an upward trend year by year. From the perspective of total imports, China’s total imports of agricultural products increased from 13.685 billion US dollars in 2001 to 177.062 billion US dollars in 2018, which was about 12.94 times that in 2001. From the perspective of import volume, the total import of agricultural products was 37 million tons in 2001, and 5.24 times in 2018, reaching 194 million tons.

From the perspective of the trade balance, China’s agricultural trade has started to show a deficit since 2003, and the trade deficit is increasing year by year. After the agricultural products trade changed from a surplus to a deficit in 2004, the trade deficit continued to expand. The trade deficit expanded from US $ 4.838 billion in 2004 to US $ 73.625 billion in 2018. The trade deficit in 2018 was 15.22 times that in 2004.

From the perspective of China’s position in world agricultural import trade, China is in an important position in world agricultural import trade. From 2001 to 2018, China’s share of the world’s total imports of agricultural products rose from 2.57% to 8.41%. In 2018, it was about 3.27 times that of 2001. Judging from the share of agricultural products in China’s total imports, the position of agricultural products in China’s import trade is relatively stable. From 2001 to 2018, the proportion of agricultural products in China’s total imports remained basically around 7% -8%.

Judging from China’s ranking in the world’s total imports of agricultural products, China’s position in the import of agricultural products has continuously improved since its entry into the WTO. Overall, the ranking of China’s agricultural product imports has roughly gone through two stages: from the first stage from 2001 to 2011, the import ranking basically continued to increase, and by 2011 the import ranking ranked second; from the second stage from 2012 to 2017 During this period, China has been steadily maintaining the status of the second largest importer of agricultural products. It can be seen that as a major agricultural product importing country, China has made important contributions to world agricultural product trade.

The United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Thailand, and Vietnam were among the top ten source countries of agricultural products imports in China in 2001 and 2018, indicating that the above six countries are China’s main agricultural product trading partners. In 2018, China’s total imports of agricultural products from OECD countries were 9.56 times that of 2001. In 2001, the United States was China’s largest source of agricultural products imports. China’s total imports of agricultural products from the United States accounted for 18.35% of China’s total imports of agricultural products from all countries. This proportion fell to 10.79% in 2018. In 2018, China’s largest source of agricultural products imports became Brazil, and the share of imports from Brazil expanded from 4.79% in 2001 to 21.63%. China’s total imports of agricultural products from the “Belt and Road” countries have grown strongly. In 2018, the total imports of agricultural products from the “Belt and Road” countries reached US $ 38.145 billion, which was 14 times as high as in 2001. China’s total imports of agricultural products from the “Belt and Road” countries accounted for 24.94% of China’s total agricultural imports from 20.27% in 2001 to 24.94% in 2018.

8. China’s import development from the United States

During the period 1992-2018, China’s imports from the United States gradually expanded, and it can be divided into three stages according to the growth rate: (1) 1992-2001: slow growth stage. In 1992, China ’s imports from the US were only US $ 8.901 billion, and in 2001 it increased to US $ 26.217 billion. In 2001, China ’s imports from the US increased by an average of 12.75% annually. (2) 2002-2014: a stage of rapid growth. During this period, China ’s imports from the United States expanded rapidly at an average annual growth rate of 15.89%, and exceeded 100 billion US dollars for the first time in 2010. In 2014, China ’s imports from the US reached 160.65 billion
The US dollar in 2014 was 18 times that of 1992 and 6 times that of 2002. (3) 2015-2018: callback phase. Since 2015, China’s import growth from the United States has declined, but in 2017 and 2018 it has resumed growth, with import growth rates of 14.3% and 0.42%, respectively. Overall, during the period 1992-2018, China ’s imports from the United States grew rapidly at an average annual rate of 11.62%, from US $ 8.901 billion in 1992.
Rising to US $ 155.09 billion in 2018, imports in 2018 were about 18 times larger than in 1992.

The number of American products with comparative advantages in the Chinese market increased from 813 in 1992 to 1003 in 2001 and then to 1040 in 2017. Compared with 1992, there were 227 more products with comparative advantages in 2017. Compared with 2001, the number of products with comparative advantage increased by 37 in 2017. Among them, products with general comparative advantage increased by 27, products with strong comparative advantage decreased by 5, and products with significant comparative advantage increased. 15 species. However, judging from the proportion of U.S. imports to China ’s total imports, from 1992 to 2018, the proportion of China ’s imports from the United States to China ’s total imports fell from 11.05% in 1992 to 7.26% in 2018.

9. China’s import development from the EU

During the period 2001-2018, China’s total imports of goods from the EU increased significantly. Specifically, China’s import trade from the EU can be roughly divided into three stages of development: the first stage (during 2001-2011) is the stage of rapid growth of China’s imports from the EU, and the second stage (during 2012-2014 ) Is a slow growth, and the third phase (during 2015-2018) is the callback phase. Overall, during the period 2001-2018, China ’s total imports from the EU increased from US $ 35.71 billion in 2001 to US $ 273.53 billion in 2018, with an average annual growth rate of 12.72%. In 2018, it was nearly 8 times higher than in 2001.

The number of EU products with comparative advantages in the Chinese market has increased from 1,447 in 2001 to 1,730 in 2017, accounting for 55.52% of all 3,116 imported products, that is, more than half of imported products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market. Specifically, 15 non-agricultural primary commodities have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, 202 agricultural primary commodities have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, 97 metal-based manufactured products have a comparative advantage, and 68 agricultural resource-based manufactured goods It has a comparative advantage, 162 other resource-based manufactured products have a comparative advantage, 36 low-tech commodities have a comparative advantage, 153 low-tech commodities have a comparative advantage, 215 medium-tech commodities have a comparative advantage, and 303 medium-high-tech commodities have a comparative advantage Comparative advantage, 342 kinds of high-tech commodities have comparative advantages, and 133 kinds of high-tech commodities have comparative advantages.

During the period 2001-2018, China’s imports from Germany increased year by year. The scale of China’s imports from Germany increased from US $ 13.772 billion in 2001 to US $ 106.33 billion in 2018. In 2018, it was nearly 8 times that of 2001, with an average annual growth rate of 12.78%. In 2018, German exports to China totaled US $ 110.502 billion, second only to the US (US $ 134.389 billion) and France (US $ 124.223 billion), and US $ 10.928 billion more than the Netherlands (US $ 95.974 billion).

Of the 3116 imported products, Germany has a comparative advantage of 1115 in the Chinese market, accounting for 35.79% of all Chinese imports from Germany. Has a comparative advantage. Specifically, 64 agricultural primary commodities have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, 7 non-agricultural primary commodities have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market; 81 metal-based manufactured products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, and 38 agricultural resource-based commodities Manufactured products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, 127 other resource-based manufactured products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market; 6 low-tech products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, and 48 low-tech products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market. 123 kinds of medium-tech products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, 228 kinds of high-tech products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, 305 kinds of high-tech products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market, and 108 kinds of high-tech products have a comparative advantage in the Chinese market.

10. China’s cross-border e-commerce import development

Although cross-border export e-commerce has always been in a dominant position, the transaction scale of cross-border import e-commerce is much smaller than that of cross-border export e-commerce. With the development of e-commerce, the scale of cross-border import e-commerce transactions is increasing day by day. The development of cross-border import e-commerce in China can be divided into the following two stages: First, the stage of slow growth. From 2000 to 2011, the transaction value of cross-border import e-commerce in China increased from 200 million yuan to 150 billion yuan, and the proportion of cross-border import e-commerce transactions in total imports increased from 0.01% to 1.33%, and the growth was relatively slow. Second, the stage of rapid growth. In 2012, cross-border import e-commerce platforms began to appear, which greatly promoted the development of cross-border import e-commerce. From 2012 to 2017, cross-border import e-commerce transactions increased from 240 billion yuan to 1.76 trillion yuan, and cross-border import e-commerce transactions accounted for 14.1% of total imports from 2.09% of the total imports, a rapid growth. Especially in 2018, the convening of the first China International Import Expo released more policy dividends for cross-border import e-commerce. The transaction scale of cross-border import e-commerce reached 1.90 trillion yuan, accounting for 13.49% of total imports.

Cross-border imported e-commerce originally developed from the era of personal purchasing. At first, almost all cross-border e-commerce platforms were C2C models. As cross-border import e-commerce policies become more and more standardized, in order to meet the diversified needs of domestic consumers, some larger B2C platforms have gradually merged with some C2C platforms, and B2C model platforms have begun to dominate. In 2017, the proportion of B2C mode was 64.4%, and the proportion of C2C mode dropped to 35.6%. The market share of cross-border imported e-commerce is dominated by a few mainstream cross-border imported e-commerce platforms, and the top five cross-border imported e-commerce platforms (including NetEase Kaola Haigou, Tmall International, Vipshop International, JD.com) , Jumei Express Duty Free Shop) accounted for 84% of the total transaction value of cross-border imported e-commerce platforms, and the oligopoly effect of the development of cross-border imported e-commerce began to appear.

Developed countries are the main source of cross-border e-commerce imports. In 2017, the top ten trading partners of China’s cross-border e-commerce imports were Japan, the United States, South Korea, Australia, Germany, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong, China. In 2018, 39.9% of cross-border e-commerce users in China will choose to purchase Japanese products, 36.2% of users will choose to purchase American products, 30.6% of users will choose to purchase products from South Korea, and 28.9% of users choose to purchase products from France , 25.9% of users will choose to buy Australian products. Taken together, at present, developed countries such as Japan, the United States, and South Korea are the main sources of cross-border imports from China. As of 2018, China’s cross-border import e-commerce users have increased to 88.5 million. In the future, it can be expected that the number of users of cross-border imported e-commerce in China will grow at a low speed.

11. China’s policy recommendations for actively expanding imports

In the new era, China has taken the initiative to expand imports. With the four objectives of “stabilizing scale, optimizing structure, improving quality, and preventing risks”, the following policy measures should be specifically adopted:
(1) Continue to hold import fairs well and provide a high-level international public platform for China’s import development;

(2) Vigorously promote the joint construction of the “Belt and Road” initiative to open up a new situation for China’s import development;

(3) Accelerate the cultivation of new trade formats and models, and expand new paths for China’s import development;

(4) Continue to deepen multi-bilateral cooperation China’s import development creates new growth points;

(5) Vigorously promote trade liberalization and facilitation, and provide new impetus for China’s import development;

(6) Promote the formation of a strong domestic market and focus on expanding China’s import potential;

(7) Effectively strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights and provide institutional guarantee for China’s import development;

(8) Accelerate the relief of financing difficulties and expensive financing, and provide financial support for China’s import development.