What are the main rules when shipping dangerous goods to the UK?
When shipping dangerous goods in the UK by air, the internationally agreed rules for covered by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) are applied.
In particular, these are International Dangerous Goods Regulations.
Anyone packing dangerous goods for aircraft has to go through a special training process.
When shipping dangerous goods in the UK by road, other internationally agreed rules for come in charge.
UK government using ADR regulations in this case (ADR is an abbreviation for European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road).
Finally, when trying to ship dangerous goods in the UK by sea, you have to complete a certain notification for any hazardous materials you move.
The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) code and the Maritime and Coastguard Agency guide transporting dangerous goods by sea.
Note: if you fail to complete some of the above-mentioned rules, you might be fined for breaking them.
You can be prosecuted and face a large fine and a prison sentence for serious breaches, for example transporting animal by-products in an unsafe way.
What is DG packing?
DG is simply an abbreviation for dangerous goods.
Does my carrier have to have a special license to transport dangerous goods?
In the vast majority of countries, shippers and carriers have to undergo rough training process to get the license (certificate) confirming that they are capable to manage with dangerous goods.
In some cases, shipping companies have to achieve additional licenses, like:
- The dangerous goods transport approval certificate. Such a certificate might be needed to prove that certain vehicle (vessel, aircraft) can deal with dangerous cargo.
- Driver training certificates (for truck freight companies). Drivers need to know dangerous cargo to carry out the delivery without incidents.
- If the shipping company also provides storage services, it has to obtain licenses for its warehouse operators.
Is perfume considered as dangerous material?
Because perfume contains some amount of ethyl alcohol, they are considered a flammable liquid (third hazard class in the GHS).
Is nail polish considered a dangerous good?
The better part of nail polishes contains toxic and hazardous liquid, which make them flammable.
Nail polishes are categorized to the third class of dangerous goods (flammable liquids).
Is paint a dangerous good?
Paint also might be considered as a dangerous product.
Practically all paints in aerosol forms are hazmats because of the pressurized gas used as a propellant in the can.
Water-based paints are non-flammable, however, they may cause corrosion, either acid or alkali.
Certain oil-based paints can be easily flammable near the fire source.
Are matches considered dangerous goods?
Yes, matches and matchboxes are classified as flammable solids.
The reason for this is the ability to match to become easily flammable near the source of the fire.
Packages must be marked on address side with the ORM D warning graphic (in the photo below).
What other popular products might be considered as dangerous goods?
In practice, there is a lot of stuff which we use in everyday life without even knowing that these products are actually hazardous materials.
Here is the incomplete list of examples:
- engine and tire care;
- lead-acid batteries;
- car airbags;
- baby grooming and skincare;
- antibacterial products;
- spray deodorants;
- hairspray, hair colors, dyes;
- magazines with beauty product samples;
- power banks;
- cell phones;
- chargers and batteries;
- pest and insect control;
- pet products;
- battery-operated toys;
- building kits for kids;
- wireless and Bluetooth headset;
Does FedEx ship dangerous goods?
In practice, the vast majority of FedEx ship centers do not accept dangerous goods shipments, except for permitted IATA Section II lithium batteries.
Please, read this guide if you want to learn more about FedEx dangerous goods shipping terms and conditions.
Dangerous Goods Shipping from China
I know you’d like to know the process of dangerous goods shipping from China.
If yes, then you are in the right place.
I am going to guide you with all the details that you need to know when shipping dangerous goods from China.
Among these details include the classification of dangerous goods as well as how to label and package these goods.
Have a look.
Shipping dangerous goods
What are Dangerous Goods?
Dangerous goods refer to any goods that have hazardous properties.
Without proper handling of these goods, they may result in accidents to either you, the environment or those shipping the goods.
Accidents resulting from dangerous goods can range from minimal accidents to fatal ones.
For instance, they may result in:
- Skin burns
- Poisonous gases escaping into the environment
- Water pollution in case of spillage
These goods may either be solids, liquids or even gases.
They can also be colored, transparent or odorless or have a smell.
You, therefore, need to ensure proper handling, labeling of these goods during the entire shipment period.
The responsibility of ensuring conformity to these labeling and packaging requirements will squarely lie on you.
Or, the responsibility will lie on a party that you nominate to ship your goods from China.
Classification of Dangerous Goods when Shipping from China
Generally, you can classify dangerous goods into different groups depending on the characteristics of the chemical they produce.
Therefore, need to understand these classes of dangerous goods before importing from China.
Understanding the classes will help you in knowing a particular class that your dangerous goods lie.
You will also be in a position to know the necessary precautions to take during shipment from China.
Here is a look at these classes.
· Category I
Category one refers to goods which can be hazardous to the environment due to high temperature, pressure or gas.
The occurrence of these conditions is under chemical reactions that occur on the goods as a result of external factors.
These factors can be heat, friction or an impact.
Category one of dangerous goods contains four classes in which your goods can fall.
The first class refers to goods which have a mass explosion hazard.
The second class refers to goods that have a projection hazard.
However, they don’t have a large-scale explosion hazard.
The third class refers to goods that have a fire hazard and either a minimum blast hazard or a minimum projection hazard or both.
These goods, however, lack a mass explosion hazard. Goods under this category are mainly explosives.
· Category II
Category two contain mainly gases.
In this perspective, gases refer to any substance that contains vapor pressure which is higher than 300 kPa at 50 ° C.
They may also be substances that completely turn into gas at 20 ° C and have a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.
You can have three classes of goods under this category.
The first class refers to flammable gases that you can easily ignite, and it burns.
Dangerous goods category II – Photo courtesy: Croner-i
The second class refers to gases that are non-flammable.
Non- toxic and are non- corrosive.
The last class includes gases that are toxic.
· Category III
The third category of dangerous goods constitutes liquid desensitized explosives and flammable liquids.
Flammable liquids refer to fluids or mixture of liquid that discharges flammable vapor at points where the flash point does not exceed 60 °C.
They may also be liquid that contains suspensions that are flammable such as paints.
On the other hand, liquid desensitized explosives refer to explosive suspended in liquid substances.
This forms a uniform liquid mixture which suppresses the explosive properties.
You can have three different packing groups under this category depending on the degree of danger of your goods.
· Category IV
Category four consists of substances which shipping them under normal circumstances are flammable and as such may case fire.
The only exception being those substances that they classify as explosives.
There are three divisions under this category.
The first one deals with flammable solids which will ignite when exposed to friction or from heat left during manufacturing.
The second one consists of substances with a likelihood of spontaneous combustion when you expose them to air.
Lastly, the third division includes elements which when they come in contact with water, they discharge flammable gases.
· Category V.
Category five of dangerous goods are goods which don’t burn.
However, these goods emit heat or oxygen during the shipment process.
It is this heat that may cause other materials to burn.
Goods under this category are known as oxidizing substance, and they have three divisions.
The first division deals with substances which produces oxygen that contributes to the burning of other materials.
The second division consists of content that contains oxygen peroxide which emits oxygen readily.
This oxygen may be responsible for decomposition, friction or decomposition of other materials.
· Category VI
There are two divisions of goods under this category of goods.
The first division refers to toxic substances which if you swallow, inhale or have skin contact with can cause severe injury or even death.
The second division refers to infectious substances which have pathogen content.
These pathogens can cause severe infection to animal or humans.
· Category VII
Category seven includes all substances that have radioactive contents.
Radioactive elements refer to materials that can emit various radiation types.
Radioactive contents in these substances surpass the specified values as per the UN recommendations.
An example of a consignment with radioactive material is a nuclear cargo.
· Category VIII
Category eight belongs to that cargo that you can ship from China containing corrosive substances.
Such loads can either be liquid or solids and have the potential to cause serious harm to the skin.
They also can corrode metals and destroy plastics.
Examples of such cargoes include acids and alkalis.
· Category IX
Category nine includes any cargo that you cannot categorize in any of the above classes but have a potential risk to the surroundings.
Divisions under this category consist of the following.
First, are cargoes that you cannot categorize in the above classes, but there is evidence of the potential risk.
Second, are liquid cargoes which you maintain the temperature at ≥100℃ when you are shipping from China.
Alternatively, they can also be solid cargos which you maintain the temperature at ≥240℃when you are shipping from China.
The third division refers to any cargo which is regulated by MARPOL 73/78 Annex III.
This deals with marine pollution and your forwarder needs to assist you with this information.
The last division deals with any genetically modified microorganism or organisms that you ship from China.
Labeling and Packaging of Dangerous Goods Shipping from China
Before shipping your dangerous goods from China, you need to ensure conformity to the packaging and labeling standards.
Shipping of hazardous goods from China is highly regulated especially after the Tianjin port explosion.
Therefore, the failure to properly follow the labeling and packaging requirements may result in the customs confiscating your goods.
To avoid this, here is a review of the guidelines that you need to follow when packaging and labeling your dangerous goods in China.
1) Labeling of Dangerous Goods for Shipping from China
When it comes to labeling your dangerous goods from China, the following are the labeling requirements.
Labeling dangerous goods – Photo courtesy: Chem Safety Pro
· LQs – Limited Quantities
Having such a label allows the carrier of your goods to ship them under relaxed terms provided that you meet specific requirements.
This includes having the threshold of the number of your goods is limited.
· Expected Quantity Mark
If your goods are below the LQ threshold, you will have to have this label on them.
The advantage of this is that your goods will take advantage of the relaxed guidelines and rules.
However, this still implies that there is a present of dangerous goods on your cargo and therefore there should be careful handling.
· Orientation arrows
Orientation arrows are mandatory, especially when shipping dangerous goods from China in liquid form.
You will have to put these labels on the outer package of your cargo in which there are other smaller packages like bottles containing the dangerous substance.
Usually, they are used to indicate the upside part of the bottles on the package.
The use of this label is crucial when the package of your goods acts as an enclosure containing more than one packages.
It, therefore, serves as a handling unit which is vital when it comes to handling and storage of your goods.
This prevents disenfranchising your goods during shipment.
· UN Number
When shipping dangerous goods from China, you need to ensure that you have a UN Number label on your consignment.
However, there is an exception for a few goods which your forwarder needs to inform you before shipping.
The UN Number indicates the number of dangerous goods in your consignment.
While putting this label, the letters UN needs to precede the quantity of the hazardous substance in the shipment.
For example, you can label your goods as UN 1707. 1707 is the quantity of the dangerous substance in your shipment.
· Environmentally Hazardous Substance Label
If you are shipping a dangerous substance from China that can cause harm to the environment, you need to have this label on your cargo.
The environment can either be marine, soil or the air.
The label should indicate the threat it causes to the environment.
This assists those handling your cargo to take necessary precautions during the handling process.
· The danger of Asphyxiation label
The importance of this label is to warn the handlers of your goods including the driver of the risk a container for your goods contains.
This is crucial in situations where you use substances like Liquid Argon or Solid Carbon Dioxide as coolants in the container.
While using this label, you need to indicate the substance using the words “AS COOLANTS” — for example, UN 1985, LIQUID ARGON, AS COOLANT.
You can also use the words “AS CONDITIONER” instead of “AS COOLANT.”
2) The Packaging of Dangerous Goods when Shipping from China
The packaging of hazardous goods for shipment from China will depend on the class that your goods fall in its nature.
Packaging dangerous goods
Also, it will depend on the means of shipment from China that you are going to use.
Remember, the main aim of properly packaging your dangerous goods is to prevent the escape of the contents therein.
To assist you with the right packaging material, you need to follow the UN specification marking code.
This code describes the kind of dangerous goods you are shipping from China and the necessary packaging material to use.
There are six packaging types that you can use for your dangerous goods.
They include drums/pails, barrels, jerricans, boxes, bags and composite packaging.
Materials that you can use for your packaging can be of steel, aluminum, natural wood, plywood, and fiberboard.
You can also use plastic and metal depending on the level of danger of your goods.
Generally, there are three packaging groups that you can use when packaging your dangerous goods.
We have group X, group Y and group Z. the choice of which group to use will depend on the category of your dangerous goods.
Always ensure that a qualified technician is the one who carries out the packaging for you.
Also, ensure where necessary that you do the packaging in an open area to minimize risk occurrence.
Dangerous Goods Shipping from China Documentation Process
Due to its high regulation, any slight mistake you make while preparing and presenting the documents may result in confiscation of your cargo by the customs.
You, therefore, have to ensure that you have all the documents ready to prevent conflicts with the customs.
Dangerous goods shipping documents
Apart from the other common documents that you need to present during customs clearance at the customs, ensure you have the following documents.
· Dangerous goods manifest
You will have to produce this document before shipping dangerous goods from China.
The details in this document include container number, IMO class, UN number, Parking group, and subsidiary risk.
It also includes the port of loading and discharge, stowage location, net mass, No. of packages and net explosive weight.
· Dangerous goods declaration
This is a declaration that your consignor has to make concerning your dangerous cargo when shipping from China.
The purpose is to acknowledge the presence of dangerous goods and that they have packed and classified them accordingly.
· Container packing certificate
Container packing certificate is a declaration from the qualified personnel packing dangerous goods in a container.
It indicates that he/she has packed the goods accordingly.
Modes of Dangerous Good Shipping from China
Ultimately, you will have to ship your dangerous cargo from China.
If your destination is closer to China such as Monrovia and Thailand, you can use the road to ship your dangerous goods from China.
However, if your destination is far, there are two main ways that you can use for dangerous shipping of your goods from China.
That is air and ocean shipping from China.
Here is a look into details of these two modes of shipping that you can use for your dangerous goods shipping from China.
1. Air Freight
You can conveniently use air freight to ship your dangerous goods from China by using some airports.
Different airports will have different guidelines as to how to store and ship your dangerous cargo from China.
Among the airports that you can use for dangerous goods shipping from China include Beijing Capital and Shanghai international airports.
You can also use Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Shenzhen, Nanjing, Tianjin, and Shanghai international airports.
There are several airlines that you can use to ship your dangerous goods from China.
Among the main airlines that you can use include:
· China Airlines
China airlines allow you to ship all categories of dangerous goods from China.
However, they have strict guidelines that you need to adhere to.
First, you need to ensure that you have appropriately packed and labeled your cargo.
You also need to have all the documents in order, and you have filled them correctly.
· Air China
Air China is another airline that you can use for shipping dangerous goods from China.
The advantage you have by using this airline is that you can export all categories of hazardous goods from China.
However, you need to ensure you have filled all the documents correctly including the dangerous goods declaration form.
You can also use Cargolux to ship dangerous goods from China.
The airlines allow you to export all the categories of hazardous goods with weight being the limitation.
There are necessary regulations that you must adhere to when shipping dangerous goods from China using this airline.
First, you must declare all the dangerous goods that you are shipping from China.
Failure to do this will lead to the airline refusing to ship your cargo.
Also, you need to ensure that you have complied with the IATA regulations on shipping of dangerous goods including packaging and labeling requirements.
You must have all the documents including dangerous goods declaration certificate and packaging certificate.
Shipping Dangerous Goods by Sea
Another option that you can use for dangerous shipping of your cargo from China is by using Ocean freight.
Not every port in China will ship your hazardous goods from China especially after the Tianjin port explosion.
As such, you need to confirm which port to use.
Here is a look at the possible ports that you can use to ship your dangerous goods from China.
· Yangzhou Port
You can conveniently use Yangzhou port to ship dangerous goods from China.
However, you cannot export all categories of hazardous goods using this port.
You can only ship dangerous goods which are of class 2.2, 3, 5.1, 8 and 9.
You need to ensure you have the correct documents and information when presenting the goods for customs clearance.
If you fail to do this, the customs will not accept the clearance of your cargo,and you will have to pay related costs.
· Jinzhou port
This port handles all categories of dangerous goods meaning you can conveniently ship your hazardous goods from China here.
To facilitate your shipping; however, your forwarder needs to book in advance as well as declare the position of the vessel for loading purposes.
· Qingdao port
You can use this port if you are shipping dangerous goods from China that are in category 2,1, 4 and 5.
The only exclusion in category four that you cannot ship via this port is sulfur.
However, you cannot store these goods in the warehouses around the harbor.
· Shanghai port
The Yangshan terminal of the port allows for shipment of dangerous goods from China as long as you have correctly labeled them.
Failure to do this, the customs will reject your goods as well as denying you the storage facilities.
Alternatively, you can also use the Guangdong Terminal at the port to ship your dangerous goods.
The requirements at this port are that you need to have proper documents which meet the local rules.
Also, you need to ensure that you have proper hazardous labels on your goods.
· Taicang port
This port allows the shipping of dangerous goods from China.
However, you cannot store your goods at the port due to a lack of qualified facilities.
You, therefore, have to load and deliver your goods ready for shipping from China.
You will incur additional charges when shipping dangerous goods from China using these modes.
You, therefore, need to be in a position to pay the costs to avoid delay when doing shipping of hazardous goods from China.